Access Essay 3 Abstract file here.
An abstract is a focused presentation of the central ideas that drive your line of inquiry. It is meant to communicate the big ideas to your readers by using concise language and summarizing main points. The context and argument are the two most important points to get across. For your group abstract, present your main ideas clearly. See some examples below:
The Consequences of Free Trade in Information Flows
by Jonathan D. Aronson
Information transforms and empowers. Too much information paralyzes and enervates. Information misused deprives us of our privacy and security. The dilemma posed by the free flow of information is that even as we are dazzled by the wealth of new data at our command and drawn closer to one another by an emerging global information network, we are increasingly bogged down and unable to act. The challenge to users and to society is to make it possible for individuals to locate, identify, and use information efficiently without drowning in the deluge of data or infringing on the privacy or security of individuals, firms or states (1996).
A Woman in the Water: Distortions of Nineteenth-Century Female Suicide
by Jenn McCollum
During the tempest of political and social change in Victorian England, perhaps the best articulation of pervading melancholy was the image of a despairing woman throwing herself into the Thames River. Resulting from destabilized ideologies of morality, spectacular representations of the drowned woman were used not only to communicate the social fears of a rapidly changing world and increasingly commercialized environment, but also anxieties of women becoming progressively more visible. Numerous depictions of women and water throughout the century suggested an incident of literal or metaphorical drowning, however Romantic and Victorian authors tended to avoid the clear depiction of a drowning woman. Kristevan “translinguistic” phases of the representation of women and water illuminate fears surrounding the mythological, socio-sexual nature of female liberation. The pivotal reinstatement of the drowned woman by Chopin on the cusp of the twentieth century rivals the necrophilic image supplanted by Hardy, Eliot, and Austen, where readers witness a woman choosing her fate and not having it chosen for her.
A Motivational Theory of Charismatic Leadership: Envisioning,
Empathy, and Empowerment.
By Jaepil Choi
Charismatic leadership is assumed to have three core components: envisioning, empathy, and empowerment. A charismatic leader’s envisioning behavior influences followers’ need for achievement, and the leader’s empathic behavior stimulates followers’ need for affiliation. Followers’ need for power is enhanced by a charismatic leader’s empowerment practices. It is further suggested that the behaviors of a charismatic leader and the enhanced followers’ needs promote clearer role perceptions, improved task performance, greater job satisfaction, stronger collective identity and group cohesiveness, more organizational citizenship behaviors, and stronger self-leadership among the followers. The contextual factors which may influence the motivational effects of charismatic leadership are also discussed.
Drunken Arrows and the Taste of Honey: Seventeenth-Century Continuities in Edwards’ “Rhetoric of Sensation”
by Meredith Neuman
Jonathan Edwards stands apart, recalibrating American Calvinist thought to partake in Enlightenment methods and theories. It is strange, then, that undergraduate surveys so often position the affective extremes of “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” as the representative text, often not for Edwards or the Great Awakening alone but for early American pulpit in toto. Nevertheless, if we consider some of the distinctive features of Edwards’ sermons in seventeenth-century contexts, a remarkable continuity of early American pulpit traditions begins to reveal itself. “Sinners,” for example, makes more sense as a “representative” sermon when considered in the terms of what earlier generations understood as “practical theology” and its attendant rhetorical mode, the “plain style.” Theorists of scripture unity, such as William Perkins and other great Elizabethan reformers, would have recognized the aim of this sermon as the first blow of the one-two punch confirmed in the Puritan “Arte of Prophesying” — the collation of “Old” and “New” Testaments, the futility of Works as opposed to Grace, the notion of Mercy fulfilling Justice. The “hellfire” of a sermon like “Sinners” is not fully representational of any single early American pulpit tradition; it does, however, point to many surprising continuities between the inherent possibilities of scripture-driven Puritan prophesying and the new, increasingly scientific theories of religious affections in Edwards’ time.
Dynamics and Dilemmas of Women Leading Women
by Jean M. Bartenuk; Kate Walsh; Catherine A. Lacey
Through examination of transcripts of the first five leadership succession discussions that occurred in a work group designed to empower teachers we explored dynamics and dilemmas associated with women leading a women’s group based on feminist principles. We addressed three research questions: How is leadership, as reflected in leadership succession processes, experienced in such a group? What dynamics are associated with leadership succession in this type of group? What are outcomes of the process for members? Results indicated that the experience of leadership shifted considerably during the first six years of the group, with reflective images of leadership moving from the mythical to the pragmatic, from the powerful to the less powerful. Dynamics evolved in ways that were partially consistent and partially inconsistent with organizational life-cycle literature. The group experienced ambivalence and tension surrounding the type of authority given to designated leaders. Members dealt with discomfort by shifting the focus of the group coordinator’s attention to external relations and by rotating internal leadership responsibilities. This approach resolved tensions associated with authority and increased members’ senses of their own power, even as it decreased the range of initiative-taking that was implicitly allowable within the group. This analysis of leadership succession in a women’s group with an empowerment agenda offers a salient case for the study of dilemmas likely to be present in many change efforts. Its results suggest that attempting to resolve contradictions and tensions is less helpful than acknowledging them and working within them.